It’s the second time in a few weeks that I have read something along the lines of:

In a year at foursquare, I’ve seen exactly one null pointer exception.

To me, this kind of statement is similar to

Ever since I switched to BASIC, I haven’t seen a single stack trace.

and it shows a fundamental misunderstanding of what a programming error is. Similarly, hearing Tony Hoare say that introducing null was a “one billion dollar mistake” makes me really question if he understands the fundamental idea behind crashes.

Null pointer exceptions, stack traces, core dumps, guru meditations, etc… are usually all the manifestation of a simple phenomenon: unexpected values. Somehow, your code expected a value but received another one. This is a programming error, also known as a bug.

If you are using a language that supports monadic Option/Maybe types, by definition, you will not be seeing any null pointer exceptions, but this doesn’t mean that you have solved the “unexpected value” problem.

In languages such as Java or C, null pointers translate into crashes that are hard to miss and usually easy to diagnose. What would be the equivalent of this in Scala?

The answer is easy: receiving a None when you expected a Some. Because of the way you thread monads through your functions, such a bug will not trigger any exceptions nor any crash: your None value will happily make its way through monadic transforms and will simply result in a no-op every time it’s being mapped. Of course, your program will yield an unexpected value that you will take notice of at some point, and then you will have to go through the painful process of retracing all the Options that your transformations have gone through to find out which one returned None when it should have returned a Some.

At this point, you should probably ask yourself: if this piece of code should never return a None, why return an Option at all? In such cases, you are better off unboxing your Option and returning its raw value. Of course, the downside of this is that you might have to lift your value again if the following computations happen in the Option monad as well.

As you can see, Options come with their own trade offs and hard design decisions as well. No such thing as a free lunch.

Which leads us to the next big misconception about this class: Option doesn’t solve null pointer exceptions nor unexpected values, it just saves you from having to test against null. And actually, doing so (e.g. pattern matching your option against Some/None) is usually considered bad practice, even though it’s sometimes necessary for Java interoperability reasons.

Personally, I favor the way Groovy, Fantom and Kotlin address the problem over having to lift all my values into Option. For example, here is how Kotlin lets you ignore null values encountered along a chain of invocations:


If either of these accesses returns null, the result of this expression will be null. No need to put your values into monadic boxes nor mapping through them, just use the standard composition operator you are familiar with if you are using a C family language.

By all means, do use Option whenever you can if you are programming in Scala (and you will probably realize that you can’t use it as much as you would like because Java libraries, and some Scala ones, are just not implemented to take Option parameters), but don’t listen to people who tell you that because you are no longer seeing any null pointer exceptions, your code is safer. It’s not. You still have to fix your bugs.