I have been thinking about providing an additional way of specifying test suites for TestNG for a while. The current format is XML, which has quite a few benefits, but no matter how hard you try to specify an XML file to make it as concise as possible, the end result will always end up being more verbose than you’d really like, especially if that format grows organically throughout the years and ends up having to cover cases that you didn’t envision initially. I designed the TestNG DTD in 2004, and while I think it’s evolved reasonably well, I’m looking for a format that might be easier to work with.

YAML attracted my attention when I started playing with Ruby on Rails a few years ago. It’s fairly expressive and concise, but for some reason, it never really took off in the Java world. These past few days, I started experimenting with YAML and TestNG, and I have to say that the initial results are pretty promising.

Here is a simple testng.xml:

  <parameter name="n" value="42" />
        <exclude name="broken" />
      <class name="test.listeners.ResultEndMillisTest" />

and here is its YAML version:

name: SingleSuite
threadCount: 4
parameters: { n: 42 }
  - name: Regression2
    parameters: { count: 10 }
    excludedGroups: [ broken ]
      - test.listeners.ResultEndMillisTest

The result is even more telling on bigger files:

-rw-r--r--  1 cbeust  502  17638 Aug  6 11:07 src/test/resources/testng.xml
-rw-r--r--  1 cbeust  502  10732 Aug 12 16:03 src/test/resources/testng.yaml

That’s almost a 40% reduction in size. And the gain in readability is also pretty obvious: here is testng.xml and testng.yaml. By the way, this is the main file that describes all the TestNG tests and the YAML file is completely equivalent to its XML version.

Adding a YAML front-end to TestNG turned out to be pretty easy. I found several libraries and I ended up picking SnakeYAML because it still seemed relatively active (the last activity dates from January) and also because it’s available in Maven.

TestNG’s XML front-end is entirely captured in the org.testng.xml package, which only contains six classes. Each of these classes maps exactly to a TestNG tag (<suite> to XmlSuite, <test> to XmlTest, etc…). As long as you can hand an XmlSuite object that defines the root of your suite to TestNG, the engine doesn’t care what file was used to produce it.

The only task was therefore to parse the YAML file and create all the XML objects that TestNG expects. YAML makes this pretty easy since it lets you map keywords to classes.

The entire effort is contained in these few lines:

Constructor constructor = new Constructor(XmlSuite.class);
TypeDescription suiteDescription = new TypeDescription(XmlSuite.class);
suiteDescription.putListPropertyType("packages", XmlPackage.class);
suiteDescription.putListPropertyType("listeners", String.class);
suiteDescription.putListPropertyType("tests", XmlTest.class);
TypeDescription testDescription = new TypeDescription(XmlTest.class);
testDescription.putListPropertyType("classes", XmlClass.class);
testDescription.putMapPropertyType("metaGroups", String.class, List.class);
Loader loader = new Loader(constructor);
org.yaml.snakeyaml.Yaml y = new org.yaml.snakeyaml.Yaml(loader);
FileInputStream is = new FileInputStream(new File(filePath));
XmlSuite result = (XmlSuite) y.load(is);

This part was really easy. I had to make a few additional adjustments that I’ll gloss over, but overall, the process was very smooth.

Additionally, since XML objects can dump themselves in XML, adding the similar functionality for YAML gave me an XML <-> YAML converter for free, which will come in handy for users who want to convert their files or just see for themselves how their XML files will look once converted to YAML.

As for YAML itself, the specification makes it look harder than it really is, so here are a few simple rules:

  • You can define key-value pairs, lists and maps.
  • Lists and maps can be specified either on one line or on several lines.
  • Single line list: [ a, b, c ]
  • Single line map: { a:1, b:2, c:3 }
  • Multi line list:
        - a
        - b
        - c
  • Multi line map:
        a: 1
        b: 2
        c: 3

There are a couple of downsides to YAML: there are not a lot of tools available for it and it’s also not very easy to validate (I am not aware of anything similar to a DTD or a schema). Despite these limitations, I’m still very tempted to officially add support for YAML in TestNG because of the convenience it brings.

If you have any experience to share about YAML, please feel free to comment.